GR Chronological History
Copyright 1996, Dale Wahl

This data was especially prepared for posting here in our digital library. The following books were reviewed to gather this data all into one listing:

It is hoped that this listing will help those who use this digital libary. If you should find yourself using a significant portion of this data in your work, it is recommended that you give credit for the list to those works cited above.

Version:  23 February 1996
Compiler: Dale Lee Wahl


ca. 550 Avars in Russia
ca. 620 Origins of Khazar State
ca. 700 Northmen in Volga Region
ca. 855-885 Cyril and Methodius convert Slavic tribes
862 Rurik, ruler of Novgorod
907 Oleg's expedition against Constantinople.
967-971 Sviatoslav's expedition against Byzantine Empire.
988 Christianity adopted by Vladimir I.
1015 Death of Vladimir I.
1017 Church of St. Sophia begun in Kiev.
1019-1054 Reign of Yaroslav the Wise.
1037 Kiev becomes metropolitan see.
1043 Last expedition against Byzantium.
1054 Catholic-Orthodox schism.
1113-1125 Reign of Vladimir II.
1139-1174 Reign of Andrew Bogolubsky.
ca. 1147 Founding of Moscow.
1223 ? Battle of the River Kalka.
1236 Second Tartar invasion.
1240 Battle of the Neva: defeat of Swedes.
1240  Kiev taken by Tartars.
1242 Battle of Lake Peipus: defeat of Teutonic Knights.
1252-1263 Reign of Alexander Nevsky in Muscovy.
1320 Kiev falls under Lithuanian Rule.

1325-1341   Reign of Ivan I Kalita.
1325        Moscow becomes metropolitan see.
1359-1389   Reign of Dimitri Donskoy.
1380        Battle of the Don.
fl. 1400    Andrew Rublev.
1408        Re-establishment of Tartar rule over Russia.
1438-1439   Council of Ferrara-Florence: attempts to unify Catholics and Orthodox.
1462-1505   Reign of Ivan III the Great.
1471-1494   Conquest of Novgorod and its destruction as trading center.
1480        Battle of the Oka River: end of Tartar rule.
1485        Incorporation of Tver.
1505-1533   Reign of Basil III.
1510        Conquest of Pskov.
1514        Conquest of Smolensk.
1533-1584   Reign of Ivan IV the Terrible.
1552        Conquest of Kazan.
1553        Discovery of North Cape route to Russia,
1554-1556   Conquest of Astrakhan.
1558        Beginning of Livonian War.
1565        Oprichnina founded.
1581        Yermak's first expedition into Siberia.
1582        Peace of Yam Zapolie.
1584-1598   Reign of Feodor I, last Tsar of Rurik family.
1589        Moscow becomes a patriarchate.
1595        Establishment of "Uniate church" in Ukraine.
1598-1605   Reign of Boris Godunov.
1604        Appearance of "False Dimitri." Beginning of Time of Troubles.
1604-1608   Cossack revolts in Ukraine against Poland.
1605-1606   Dimitri as Tsar.
1606-1610   Reign of Basil IV Shuisky.
1608        Appearance of "Second False Dimitri."
1611-1612   The Poles in Moscow.
1613        Election of Romanov family to the throne.
1613-1645   Reign of Michael I.
1618        Russians reach upper Yenisei River in Siberia.
1619-1633   Philaret, Patriarch of Moscow.
1625-1649   New Cossack revolts in Ukraine against Poland.
1632        Russians reach Lena River in Siberia.
1637        A "Siberian Department" established in Moscow.
1645        Russians reach Pacific Coast of Siberia.
1645-1676   Reign of Alexis I.
1649        Publication of new Russian law code.
1652        Nikon becomes Patriarch of Moscow.
1653        Convening of last Zemsky Sobor.
1654-1656   Church council in Moscow for sake of reform: beginning of the Schism.
1661        Peace of Cardis with Sweden.
1667-1671   Revolt of Stenka Razin.
1676-1682   Reign of Feodor II.
1682-1725   Reign of Peter I the Great.
1682-1689   Regency of Sophia.
1689        Russo-Chinese Treaty of Nerchinsk.
1689        Peter seizes government.
1696        Capture of Azov.
1697        Kamchatka reached by Russian explorers.
1697-1698   Peter's trip through Europe; suppression of Streltsi.
1700        New calendar introduced.
1700-1721   Great Northern War.
1700        Defeat at Narva.
1703        Founding of St. Petersburg.
1709        Battle of Poltava.
1710-1711   Russo-Turkish War: loss of Azov.
1713        St. Petersburg becomes capital of Russia.
1716        Invasion of southern Sweden.
1718        Death of Alexis, son of Peter.
1721        Peace of Nystad.
1721        Patriarchate abolished in Moscow; Holy Synod established.
1722-1723   War against Persia.
1725        Academy of Science founded in St. Petersburg.
1725-1727   Reign of Catherine I.
1727        Russo-Chinese Treaty of Kyakhta.
1727-1730   Reign of Peter II.
1730-1740   Reign of Anna I.
1731        Ladoga Canal completed.
1733-1735   War of Polish Succession (Stanislaw Leszcynski).
1737        Charting of northern Siberian coast line.
1738        Russian ballet school founded.
1738-1739   War with Turkey.
1739        Treaty of Belgrade: coast on Black Sea gained.
1740-1741   Reign of Ivan VI; regency of Anna Leopoldovna.
1741-1762   Reign of Elizabeth.
1741        Discovery of Bering Straits.
1743        0stermann exiled.
1743        Peace of Abo: Sweden cedes Viborg.
1755        Moscow University founded.
1755        Lomonosov, Russian Grammar.
1757-1762   Russian participation in Seven Years' War.
1758        Academy of Fine Arts founded.
1761        Abrogation of the Colonist Status
1762        Reign of Peter III.
1762        Nobility freed from compulsory service.
1762-1796   Reign of Catherine II the Great.
1763        Catherine's Manifesto.
1763-1768   Emigration into Volga area from Hesse, Rhineland, the
            Palatinate, Saxony, Wuerttemberg, Switzerland, etc.
1764        Secularization of church lands and property.
1765        Death of Lomonosov.
1765        Emigration to Riebensdorf from Sulzfeld Wuerttemberg.
1766        Emigration to near Petersburg from Hesse, Wuerttemberg, Brandenburg.
1766        Emigration to Belowesh from Hesse.
1767-1774   Commission for the Study of Reforms.
1768        Outbreak of war with Turkey.
1772        First Partition of Poland.
1772-1774   Pugachev Revolt.
1774        Treaty of Kuchuk Kainardji.
1775        End of Cossack autonomy in the Ukraine.
1780        Armed Neutrality against England during American Revolution.
1780        Emigration to Josefstal, Fischerdorf, Jamburg near the Dnieper
            from Prussia, Wuerttemberg, Bavaria.
1782        Emigration to Alt Schwedendorf from Sweden.
1783        Annexation of Crimea.
1785        Charter for Russian nobility and merchants.
1786        Emigration to Alt Danzig from Prussia.
1787-1790   Russo-Swedish War.
1787-1792   Russo-Turkish War: campaigns of Suvorov.
1789-1790   Emigration to Chortitza (Mennonites) from Danzig, West Prussia.
1792        Treaty of Jassy.
1793        Second Partition of Poland.
1795        Third Partition of Poland.
1796        Odessa founded.
1796-1801   Reign of Paul I.
1799        Suvorov's Italian and Swiss campaigns (War of Second Coalition).
1801        Russian suzerainty formally recognized by Georgia.
1801-1825   Reign of Alexander I.
1802        Philharmonic Society founded.
1803        Expedition around world.
1803        Czar appoints Richelieu governor of Odessa.  Arrival of 2,990 immigrants.
1803        Alexander publishes Rescript on the colonization of "New Russia".
1803        Kanenius becomes president of the Colonist Welfare Office.
1804-1806   Grossliebental colonies founded.
1804-1806   Emigration to Franzfeld, Mariental, Josefstal by Odessa from
            Alsace, the Palatinate, Baden.
1804-1806   Emigration to Halbstadt, Molotschna (Mennonites) from Danzig,
            West Prussia.
1804-1806   Emigration to Prischib, Molotschna from Wuerttemberg, Baden, Hesse.
1804-1806   Emigration to Crimea (Neusatz, Zuerichtal) from Wuerrtemberg, Switzerland.
1805        Defeat at Austerlitz.
1805        Richelieu appointed governor of New Russia.
1806        Outbreak of war with Turkey.
1807        Defeat at Friedland.
1807        Treaty of Tilsit: alliance with France.
1807-1909   War of Coalition against France.
1808        Congress of Erfurt.
1808-1809   Russo-Swedish war.
1808-1809   Constitutional reforms proposed by Speransky.
1808-1810   Glueckstal colonies founded.
1808-1810   Emigration to Kutschurgan District from Alsace, Baden, Poland.
1808-1810   Emigration to Beresan District from Alsace, Baden, Palatinate, Wuerttemberg.
1809        Treaty of Frederikshavn with Sweden: acquisition of Finland.
1809        Opening of official relations with United States.
1811        The first census of the colonists.
1812        Peace with Turkey at Bucharest: acquisition of Bessarabia.
1812        Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
1812        Odessa plague kills 2,656 people.
1812-1827   Emigration to Prischib, Molotschna from Wuerttemberg, Baden, Hesse.
1813        Battle of the Nations at Leipzig.
1813        Persia cedes Baku; incorporation of Georgia.
1814        Occupation of Paris.
1814        Richelieu returns to Paris; is succeeded by Count Langeron
1814-1816   Emigration to Bessarabia, Colonies near Odessa from Wuerttemberg,
            Prussia, Poland, Bavaria.
1815        Congress of Vienna; Holy Alliance founded.
1815        Russia conquers Duchy of Warsaw.
1815-1820   The "golden years" of colonist prosperity.
1816-1819   Emancipation of peasants in Baltic provinces.
1817        1,360 Wuerttemberg families arrive at Ismail.  1,300 people
            perish in quarantine camps.
1817-1818   Emigration to South Caucasus from Wuerttemberg.
1818        Constitution for Poland.
1818        Colonist Welfare Committee established. Inspectorates introduced in the colonies.
1818-1845   President of the Welfare Committee - General Ivan Insov.
1819        Colony of Hoffnungstal (Odessa) founded.
1820        The Jesuits expelled from Russia.
1821-1834   Emigration to Bessarabia, Colonies near Odessa from
            Wuerttemberg, Prussia, Poland, Bavaria.
1822        Congress of Verona.
1822        Langeron returns to Paris.  Vorontzov becomes governor.  Richelieu dies.
1822-1831   Emigration to Swabian colonies near Berdjansk from Wuerttemberg.
1823-1842   Emigration to Granau area (Planer colonies) from Danzig, West
            Prussia, Rhine-Hesse, Baden.
1825        Alexander visits South Russia - dies in the Crimea.  Nicholas I becomes Czar.
1825-1855   Reign of Nicholas I.
1825-1829   Good crops in the colonies.  Building of new homes.
1825        Dekabrist Rising.
1826-1828   War against Persia; expansion in Caucasus region.
1826        Death of Karamzin.
1827        Battle of Navarino.
1828        Outbreak of war with Turkey.
1829        Peace of Adrianople.
1829        Platzer's plan to establish Central (secondary) schools.
1830-1832   Revolution in Poland.
1832        First commercial treaty with United States.
1833        The Black Year: no rain, no crops; famine and food relief.
1833        Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi.
1835        Colonial affairs under the Ministry of Imperial Domains.
1837        Death of Pushkin.
1839        Russian silver currency established.
1842        First Central schools established.
1845        Czar Nicholas I visits Pope Gregory XVI.
1845-1848   Councilor Hahn president of the Welfare Committee.
1846-1848   Years of colonist prosperity.
1848        Councilor Hahn directs writing of 1848 village histories.
1848        Colonist Codex established.
1848        Death of Belinsky.
1848-1853   President of the Welfare Committee - Baron von Rosen
1849        Suppression of Hungarian revolution.
1849        Johann Ludwig Bette, 28, of Johannestal/Odessa, with a small
            party emigrates to USA, and settles in Ohio.
1850        Helanus Kahn becomes the first bishop of Tiraspol diocese.
1851        St. Petersburg-Moscow railroad opened.
1853        Occupation of Sakhalin and Korea.
1853        Emigration to Samara (Mennonites) from Danzig, West Prussia.
1853-1856   President of the Welfare Committee - Baron von Mestmacher.
1854-1856   Crimean War. (1853-1856?)
1855-1881   Reign of Alexander II.
1855        Fall of Sevastopol.
1855        Cholera epidemic.
1856        Peace of Paris.
1856        Death of Glinka.
1856-1858   President of the Welfare Committee - Islawin.
1857        Catholic seminary established in Saratov.
1857-1867   Herzen, The Bell.
1858-1866   President of the Welfare Committee - Alexander von Hamm.
1859-1862   Emigration to Samara (Mennonites) from Danzig, West Prussia.
1860        Founding of Vladivostok; Treaty of Peking.
1861        Emancipation of serfs. Land distribution.  Redemption payments.
1862        Financial reform.
1862        Unterhaltungsblatt published. (the first German paper).
1862        US Homestead Act.
1863        Educational reform. (Prohibition of corporal punishment for school children.)
1863        Secession from Academy of Fine Arts.
1863-1864   Revolt in Poland.
1864        Judicial reform; introduction of Zemstvos. (The Zemstvo local self-government.)
1864        Bishop Kahn dies.  Lipski becomes administrator.
1865        Capture of Tashkent.
1865        Corporal punishment of women abolished.
1866        Attempted assassination of Alexander II.
1866-1867   President of the Welfare Committee - Th. Lysander.
1867        Reduction of protective tariffs.
1867        Sale of Alaska to United States.
1867-1871   President of the Welfare Committee - Vladimir von Oettingen.
1868        Capture of Samarkand.
1869        Karl Marx, Das Kapital (Vol. I).
1869        Central School established in Grossliebental.
1870        Abrogation of Black Sea clauses of Treaty of Paris.
1870        Municipal reform.
1871        The Colonist Codex is abrogated.  Privileges of colonists
            granted by Catherine and Alexander repealed.
1872        The first German colonists migrate to USA.  (see 1849 - led by
            Johann Ludwig Bette).
1872        Three Emperors' League (Germany, Austria, Russia).
1873        Conquest of Khiva.
1873        55 families from Rohrbach/Worms emigrate to the Sutton NE area.
1874        Introduction of universal military service.
1874        Colonists subject to army service.
1875        Southern Sakhalin ceded to Japan; western Kuril Islands acquired.
1875-1876   New uprisings in Balkans.
1876        Death of Bakunin.
1876        Annexation of Kokand.
1877        Colonist Welfare Committee abolished.
1877        Reintroduction of protective tariffs.
1877-1878   War against Turkey.
1878        Treaty of San Stephano.
1878        Congress of Berlin.
1878-1881   Terrorist activities.
1878-1881   Populist movement.
1880        Abolation of the salt tax.
1881        Assassination of Alexander II.
1881        Death of Mussorgsky.
1881        Death of Dostoyevsky.
1881        German schools under Ministry of Public Enlightment.
1881-1894   Reign of Alexander III.
1882        Famine in Russia.
1882-1886   Payments and burdens of emancipated serfs reduced.
1882-1890   Social legislation (child labor, working hours, factory inspection).
1883        Antonius Zerr becomes bishop of Tiraspol.  Increase of colonist priests.
1884        Merv taken.
1885        Revolution in Bulgaria.
1887        Reinsurance Treaty with Germany.
1890        Anti-Jewish legislation enforced.
1891-1892   Franco-Russian alliance: French loans for Russia.
1891-1903   Trans-Siberian railroad constructed.
1892        Famine in Russia.
1893        German colonies receive Russian names.
1894-1917   Reign of Nicholas II.
1896        Treaty with China regarding trans-Siberian railroad in Manchuria.
1896-1897   Strike movement.
1898        Social Democratic party founded.
1898        Port Arthur leased.
1899        Hague Peace Conference.
1899        Finnish legislature abolished.
1900        Boxer Rebellion.
1901        Russo-Persian treaty.
1902        Bishop Zerr resigns.  Baron van Ropp, fourth bishop of Tiraspol.
1902        Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
1903        Menshevist-Bolshevist split in Social Democratic party.
1903        Abolition of joint-tax liability of peasants.
1903        Pogroms in Kishinev, Gomel.
1904        Joseph Kessler, Volga German, becomes 5th bishop of Tiraspol.
1904-1905   Russo-Japanese War.
1904        Assassination of Plehwe.
1905        Fall of Port Arthur; naval Battle of Tsushima.
1905        Demonstration under Father Gapon: Bloody Sunday.
1905        Peace of Portsmouth.
1905        Meeting of Tsar Nicholas with Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany.
1905        October Revolution.
1906        First Duma.
1906        Stolypin's agrarian reform; dissolution of mfr.
1907        Central School established in Landau.
1907        Second Duma.
1907        Second Hague Peace Conference.
1907        Anglo-Russian convention: foundation for Triple Entente.
1907        Russo-Japanese convention.
1907-1912   Third Duma.
1908        Convention with Austria at Buchlau.
1908        Progymnasium established in Landau by Fr. Scherr.
1910        Potsdam agreement with Germany regarding Baghdad railroad.
1910        Russo-Japanese treaty.
1910        Death of Tolstoy.
1912-1917   Fourth Duma.
1914        Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo.
1914-1918   World War I.
1914        Defeat at Tannenberg.
1915        Defeat in Galicia.
1915        Fall of Warsaw.
1916        Brusilov offensive.
1916        Assassination of Rasputin.
1917        February Revolution; abdication of Nicholas II; Provisional Government.
1917        Kerensky offensive.
1917        Church property confiscated.
1917        July uprising of Soviets.
1917        Russia becomes a republic; renewal of patriarchate.
1917        Bolshevist October Revolution (Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin); Kerensky government
            overthrown. ("Bolshevik Coup").
1917        Armistice with Central Powers.
1918        Adapted Gregorian Calendar (Feb 1 became Feb 14).
1918        Constituent Assembly dispersed.
1918        Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty with Central Powers.
1918        Outbreak of civil war; Allied intervention in Russia begins.
1918        Red Army created.
1918        Death of Nicholas II.
1918        First Soviet Constitution (Fundamental Law); creation of Federation of
            Soviet National Republics.
1918        End of World War I; revolution in Germany.
1919        Treaty of Versailles; League of Nations founded.
1919        Third International (Comintern) established.
1919        Foreign trade monopoly established.
1919        Enforced requisitioning of grain.  The Red massacre in Selz.
1920        The closing of the seminary.  Bishop Kessler leaves Russia.
1920        Recognition of Soviets by Estonia.
1920        End of Allied intervention.
1920        End of civil war; death of Kolchak; withdrawal of Denikin and Wrangel.
1920-1921   War against Poland.
1920-1922   Famine in Russia (250,000-300,000 starve to death).
1921        Peace of Riga; cession of White Russian lands to Poland.
1921        Institution of N.E.P.
1921        Lenin's "New Economic Policy".
1921        Friendship treaties with Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan.
1922        Conference at Genoa; Treaty of Rapallo with Germany.
1922        End of Far Eastern Republic.
1922        Arrest of Patriarch Tikhon; dissolution of Synot.
1922        Stalin becomes secretary of Communist party.
1922        Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) created.
1923        Revised Fundamental Law published.
1923        The Soviet registration of all churches.
1924        Death of Lenin.
1924        Treaty with China.
1924        Recognition of U.S.S.R. by England, Italy, France.
1924        Incident of Zinoviev letter.
1924        Trotsky stripped of power.
1924        Stalin becomes supreme dictator.
1925        Recognition of U.S.S.R. by Japan.
1925        Fourteenth Party congress: announcement of industrialization plan.
1926        Trotsky expelled from Politburo.
1927        Raid on Soviet trade headquarters in London; relations with England broken.
1927        Tenth Jubilee of Revolution.
1928        First Five-Year Plan inaugurated.
1928        Millions sent to the slave labor camps.
1928        Briand-Kellogg Peace Pact.
1928-1929   Stalin's collectivization and liquidation of the kulaks.
1929        East Protocol signed.
1929        Resumption of relations with England.
1929        Trotsky expelled from U.S.S.R.
1929        Bishop Frison appointed administrator of the Crimea.
1929        Raid on Soviet consulate in Harbin; Treaty of Nikolsk Ussuriisk.
1929-1931   Deportation of priests and intellectuals.
1930        Turksib railroad opened.
1930        Liquidation of kulaks.
1931        Trial of Industrialist party.
1932        Dnieprostroy Dam opened.
1932        Bishop Zerr dies in Kandel.
1932-1933   Second Russian famine.
1932-1937   Second Five-Year Plan.
1933        Bishop Kessler dies in a monastery in Prussia.
1933        Recognition of U.S.S.R. by United States.
1934        Russia joins League of Nations.
1934        Sham trials of the priests in Landau.
1934-1938   Party purges: execution of Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, Rykov, Tukhachevsky.
1935        Sale of Chinese Eastern railway.
1935        Franco-Russian alliance.
1936        Stakhanov Year.
1936        Stalin Constitution: revision of Fundamental Law.
1936        Death of Gorky.
1937        Bishop Frison executed in a Crimean prison.
1938        Third Five-Year Plan started.
1939        Collapse of English and French military negotiations with U.S.S.R.
1939        Nonaggression pact with Germany.
1939        Outbreak of World War II.
1939        Annexation of eastern Poland.
1939        Mutual assistance pacts with Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
1939-1940   War against Finland.
1939        Expulsion of U.S.S.R. from League of Nations.
1940        Incorporation of Baltic republics into U.S.S.R.
1941        Stalin becomes Premier.
1941        Russo-Japanese neutrality pact.
1941        Nazis invade Russia.  Deportation of Volga colonists to Siberia.
1941        U.S.S.R. accepts Atlantic Charter.
1942        United Nations Declaration signed.
1942        Siege of Moscow raised.
1942        Fall of Sevastopol.
1942        Twenty-year alliance with Great Britain.
1943        Re-establishment of patriarchate.
1943        Churches in Odessa Region reopened.
1943        Bishop Glaser appointed administrator of Transnistria.
1943        Siege of Stalingrad raised.
1943        Anglo-Russian-United States conference in Moscow.
1943        Teheran Conference.
1941        Siege of Leningrad raised.
1941        Bretton Woods Conference.
1944        Alliance with France.
1944        Retreat of the Wehrmacht.  Flight of 350,000 colonists to the West.
1944        Armistice with Rumania, Bulgaria, Finland.
1945        Yalta Conference (United States, England, Russia).
1945        San Francisco Conference.
1945        Berlin taken.
1945        Soviets deport 250,000 German refugees to Siberia, 80,000-100,000
            escape to Germany.
1945        Potsdam Conference.
1945        Russian declaration of war against Japan.
1945        Surrender of Japan: end of World War II.
1946        Discord in United Nations over Iran and Greece.
1946        Proposals in United Nations for atomic energy control.
1947        Peace treaties signed with Finland, Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary.
1947        Currency reform.
1948        Establishment of a communistic government in Czechoslovakia.
1948-1949   Berlin blockade.
1949        Excommunication of Communists by the Pope.
1949        Defeat of Nationalist China by the Chinese Communists.
1949-1955   Interruption of political relations with Yugoslavia.
1950        Bishop Glaser dies in a Communist prison in Rumania.
1951        Fifth Five-Year Plan initiated.
1952        General Party Congress.
1953        Death of Stalin; Malenkov becomes Premier.
1955        Malenkov resigns; Rise of Khrushchev.
1955        Conclusion of Austrian Peace Treaty.
1957        Launching of sputnik.
1958        Khrushchev becomes Premier.
1960        Failure of Geneva and Disarmament conferences.
1961        Currency Reform.
1961        Launching of man into orbit in space.
1961-1962   Berlin Crisis.
1962        Cuba crisis.
1963        Widening gulf between Russia and China.
1963        Atomic Test Ban negotiated.
1964        Kruschchev grants amnesty, without reparations, to the deported German
            Russians in the slave labor camps.
1964        Ouster of Khrushchev.
1968        Soviets invade Czechoslovakia.
1971        New Five-Year Plan. Increased decentralization.
1971        Berlin Agreement with Western powers.
1972        Treaty with West Germany.
1972        U.S. President visits Moscow.
1974        End of Vietnam War.
1974-1977   2,000,000 Soviet Germans in USSR.
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