Villages


by Gayla Gray, Valerie Ingram, Elaine Morrison, and Dale Wahl

If you have further questions, please contact Headquarters.


Frequently Asked Questions

Archives

Beginning Researcher

Beresan District Odessa

Bessarabia

Black Sea

Books

California

Canada

Caucasus (see South Caucasus)

Charkow

Crimea

Customs/Dress

Dobrudscha

Don District

Emigration

Famous People

Farming/Agriculture

Geographic Name Changes (Germany)

Germany

Glueckstal Colonies, Odessa

Grossliebental District, Odessa

Government

Hungary

Idaho

Jekaterinoslaw

Kherson (see Odessa)

Krim (see Crimea)

Kutschurgan Villages

Language

Maps

Medical History

Montana

North Dakota

Nebraska

Odessa/Kherson

Oregon

Religion

Repression/Persecution

Schools

South Caucasus

South Dakota

St. Petersburg Reports

Taurien

United States

Villages

Washington State

White Russia?

 


 

Archives

How does a researcher gain access to the various archives in Germany?

Access by individuals other than scholars who have been cleared is very difficult and even if one has clearance, it can be very expensive. [If anyone has insight or further information concerning any of the archives in Germany, please share with us so we can add to this FAQ data.]

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How does a researcher gain access to the various archives in Old Russia and the Ukraine?

GRHS has a dedicated Archives Acquisition committee that works very hard to bring home copies of old records. There are many sub-groups also working within GRHS. It is highly recommended that anyone interested in such activities learn what these folks are doing and participate within these efforts. Individuals working on their own only tend to duplicate what these groups and GRHS are doing.

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Where can I find or write to get copies of the Catholic Church records for my families who lived and died in Old Russia?

At the current time, there is no such place. Those asking such questions need to understand that at GRHS we have some serious efforts underway to try to find records for all of our Black Sea German families. Making contact, working with and supporting these efforts within the records retrieval groups of GRHS is the best way to ensure that we will have success.

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What is meant by "captured German records"?

Go to the Odessa Digital Library and look in the WAR directory. Here you will find files explaining the various types such as EWZ and DAI. The files you see here for the EWZ, the DAI and the Village Reports are all part of those "captured German records."

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What is meant by the term "EWZ"?

EWZ stands for the term Einwandererzentralstelle.
Read this file. Also, see "EWZ Q&A" in the December 2007 issue of the Heritage Review.

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What is meant by the term "DAI"?

DAI stands for the term Deutsches Ausland-Institut.
Read this file.

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Beginning Researcher

What can a beginner study on-line to gain insight to the Black Sea German-Russian history?

Review "An Elementary Tutorial of the German-Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Timeline". Link text
Several prime books are referenced throughout the Tutorial that will prove very valuable for the beginning as well as the advanced German-Russian researcher.

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Beresan District Odessa

Where might I locate history on the Beresan District villages?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.
  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe - The Odyssey of a Pioneering People" by Joseph S. Height.
  • See "Paradise on the Steppe - The Odyssey of a Pioneering People" by Joseph S. Height.

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Bessarabia

Where will I find family information that has been published about the village of Friedenstal in Bessarabia?

  • See "Friedenstal" by Friedrich Ernst.
  • See the Bessarabian Church HoH Family Books index in the Odessa Digital Library. Read this file.
  • See censuses for sale by GRHS Store.
  • See the Koblenz family files. Read this file.

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Where will I find family information that has been published about the village of Sarata in Bessarabia?

  • See "Sarata 1822-1940" by Christian Fiess.
  • See Bessarabian Church HoH Family Books index in the Odessa Digital Library. Read this file.
  • See censuses for sale by GRHS Store.
  • See the Koblenz family files. Read this file

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Where will I find family information that has been published about the village of Teplitz in Bessarabia?

  • See Bessarabian Church HoH Family Books index in the Odessa Digital Library. Read this file.
  • See censuses for sale by GRHS Store.
  • See "Colony Teplitz" by Herbert Weiss.
  • See the Koblenz family files. Read this file.
  • See "Teplitz Sippenbuch" by Theophil Handel.

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Where will I find family information that has been published about the village of Hoffnungstal in Bessarabia?

  • See "Familien- und Sippenbuch Hoffnungstal/Bessarabien" by Albert Eisenbeis.
  • See Bessarabian Church HoH Family Books index in the Odessa Digital Library. Read this file.
  • See censuses for sale by GRHS.
  • ee the Koblenz family files. Read this file. .
  • See "Hoffnungstal-Bilder einer deutschen Siedlung in Bessarabien" by Rudolf Hofer.

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When were the villages of Bessarabia founded?

The "mother villages" of Bessarabia were mostly founded between 1814 and 1825, three in 1834 and the last in 1842. See page 85 of the Stumpp book.

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Where will I find family information that has been published about other Bessarabian villages?

Some of these books are out of print but many are still available from the Bessarabian Museum bookstore in Stuttgart, Germany. Many of these and similar books are held in the GRHS library. During visits to Bismarck, and during conventions, come prepared to research these precious items.
  • "Alt Posttal Heimatbuch"
  • "Arzis Blick auf 150 Jahre"
  • "Borodino und Friedrichsfeld Heimatbuch"
  • "Eichendorf in Bessarabien" by Hugo Haefner
  • "Eigenfeld 1879-1940" by Rudi Enslen
  • "Friedensfeld Bessarabien Familien und Sippenregister" by Ernst Necker
  • "Friedrichsfeld und Borodino Heimatbuch"
  • "Kloestitz - Das Bild der Heimat"
  • "Kulm Heimatbuch"
  • "Lichtental Bessarabien Bilder einer Schw„bischen Gemeinde"
  • "Mannsburg Chronik und Familienbuch" by Christian Fiess
  • "Mathildendorf Heimatbuch"
  • "Neu Posttal Heimatbuch der Gemeinde"
  • "Plotzk in Bessarabien 1839-1940"
  • "Tarutino zentrum der deutschen in Bessarabien 1918-1940" by Fandrich and Bisle
  • "Wittenberg" by Rath and Bollinger

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Black Sea

When did our German ancestors first start coming into the Black Sea area?

  • See the Stumpp book, beginning on page 85.
  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.
  • See the two volume set by Konrad Keller: "Die Deutschen Kolonien in Südrussland" (The German colonies in South Russia).

We note our early Black Sea German families arriving between 1803 and 1810 with a larger wave arriving around 1817 to 1822.

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Where will I find information pertaining to the subject of the Danube River as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height.

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Where will I find information pertaining to the subject of daughter colonies as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 313.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 237.

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Where will I find information pertaining to the subject of land as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 147.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 100.

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Where may I find information pertaining to the subject of measures as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 429.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 400.

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Where may I find information pertaining to the subject of population as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, pages 147 and 329.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, pages 100 and 251.

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Where will I find information on the Black Sea Catholics?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.
  • See "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S.Height.
  • See the two volume set by Konrad Keller: "Die Deutschen Kolonien in Südrussland" (The German Colonies in South Russia).
  • See the books published by John Philipps.

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Where will I find information on the Black Sea Evangelical Lutherans?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.
  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height.

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What is meant by the term "South Russia"?

Most who use the term "South Russia" are speaking of the Black Sea area where our German-Russian people lived.

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What is meant by the term "steppe"?

According to a dictionary, steppe refers to "one of the vast tracts in southeastern Europe and in Asia, generally level and without forests."
Some of Stumpp's maps for North America show the ND, SD, NE, KS names and into Canada as being steppe land, so this should be a good comparison for those wanting to understand the steppe in the Black Sea area.

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What were some first impressions of the early settlers to South Russia?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 49.

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Books

What are some of the key books in which I will find Black Sea German-Russian information? May I borrow them by inter-library loan?

See "An Elementary Tutorial of the German-Russian History - An Enhanced (Black Sea German)Time Line". Link text
This file provides insight into several books that are considered essential for the German-Russian researcher. Most of these books may be borrowed on inter-library loan through your local library. They may be purchased through your Germans from Russia societies.

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California

Where in California did the Black Sea German-Russians settle?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 123.
Only about 20% of the German-Russian families settling in California were from the Black Sea. Most settled in the counties of Fresno, Kern, San Joaquin and Tulare.

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Canada

There was a second migration from the United States to Canada. When did that occur?

  • In "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, page 32, we find a considerable migration of Black Sea Germans to Canada during the years of 1904-1910 with the peak occurring in 1909 and 1910.

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Caucasus

  • See South Caucasus

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Charkow

Where will I find information pertaining to the Charkow Region?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.

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Crimea

Where will I find information pertaining to the Crimean region?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.

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When was the Crimean War?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.

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Customs/Dress

Where will I find information pertaining to the customs and lives of our Black Sea ancestors?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.
  • For Protestant villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 297.
  • For Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 186.

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Where will I find information pertaining to costumes and dress as they relate to our Black Sea ancestors?

  • See "Paradise on the Steppe - The Odyssey of a Pioneering People" by Joseph S. Height, page 133.

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Where will I find information pertaining to the subject of festivals as it relates to our Black Sea ancestors?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S.Height, page 297.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 175.

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Where will I find information about folk songs as it relates to our Black Sea ancestors?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 280.

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Where will I find information pertaining to the subject of weddings as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 303.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height,page 197.

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Dobrudscha

Where will I find historical insight pertaining to the Dobrudscha region?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.

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Don District

Where will I find historical insight pertaining to the Don District?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.

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Emigration

Why did our ancestors leave Russia?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet.
  • See "An Elementary Tutorial of the German Russian History - An Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line". Link text

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When did our ancestors leave Russia?

  • See "An Elementary Tutorial of the German Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line," year 1849. Link text
    Changes in laws in the 1860s and 1870s initiated a steady flow of emigrants in the 1870s, increasing in numbers in the 1880s and continuing well into the 20th century.

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Famous People

Who was George Leibbrandt?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 399.

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Who was Ignaz Lindl?

  • See "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 108.

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Who was Heinrich Roemmich?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 397.

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Who was Karl Stumpp?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 395.

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Farming/Agriculture

Where will I find information pertaining to agriculture as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 133.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 86.

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Where will I find information pertaining to crops as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 140.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 86.

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Where will I find information pertaining to farmsteads as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 235.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 120.

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Geographic Name Changes (Germany)

By which geographic names has Alsace-Lorraine been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Historically, Alsace and Lorraine are two different regions. Lorraine (the former Duchy of Lothringen) became a French province in 1766. After the Franco-German War of 1870-1871, the German-speaking parts of Lorraine and Elsaß (Bas Rhin and Haut Rhin) were annexed and joined to become Elsaß-Lothringen of the German Empire. As a result of WW I, Elsaß-Lorraine was returned to France until 1940 at which time Germany again claimed the area. It has been part of France since 1945.

The reference place names are Germany, Elsaß, Lothringen and Germany, Alsace-Lorraine.

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By which geographic names has Anhalt been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Anhalt has been known as the Kingdom of Anhalt and the Province of Saxony (Provinz Sachsen). It was located in East Germany after WW II. The new State of Saxony-Anhalt was created shortly before the reunification of Germany, consisting of the former Anhalt, the former Prussian Province of Saxony and a small portion of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Saxony Anhalt is presently one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Anhalt; Germany, Preußen, Schlesien, Anhalt; and Germany, Sachsen, Anhalt.

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By which geographic name has Baden been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

Baden was known as the Kingdom of Baden and became a part of the German Empire. It was in West Germany after WW II and since 1990 has been part of the State of Baden-Württemberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Baden. Also see Württemberg below.

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By which geographic names has Bavaria been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Bavaria was known as Bayern and became a part of the German Empire. It was part of West Germany after WW II, and since 1990 has been the State of Bavaria, one of sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Bayern and Germany, Bavaria.

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What is the history of Berlin and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

Berlin was founded around 1200 A.D. as two cities, Berlin and Cölln, that united in 1307. It served as the residence of the Prussian kings and became the capital of the German Empire in 1871. After WW II it was separated into East Berlin (under the German Democratic Republic) and West Berlin (under the Federal Republic of Germany). Beginning in 1961 the Berlin Wall kept the two apart until the fall of the Wall in 1989. The two were united in 1991 with Berlin the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, but it took until 1999 for the move from Bonn to be completed. Berlin is included in this listing because it is one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place name for Berlin is Germany, Preußen, Brandenburg, Berlin.

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By which geographic names has Brandenburg been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Recorded history dating to 98 A.D. shows that the area was alternately conquered by Slav and Germanic armies. It became part of the German Empire and was known as Mark Brandenburg. Later it was part of Prussia and East Prussia, and after WW II it was in East Germany and Poland. Since German Reunification in 1990 it has been one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Preußen, Brandenburg and Germany, Preußen, Ostpreußen, Brandenburg.

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By which geographic names has Bremen been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

The State of Bremen is composed of the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven with Bremen serving as its capital. After WW II it was part of West Germany. The state is completely surrounded by Lower Saxony. Bremen is included in this listing because it is one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Bremen and Preußen, Westfalen, Bremen.

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By which geographic names has Brunswick been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

The German name for Brunswick is Braunschweig. In 1807 it became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia until 1813 when it was returned to the Braunschweig rulers. It was a member of the North German Confederation from 1866 and of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918 when it became a republic and joined the Weimar Republic. The states of Schaumburg-Lippe, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Oldenburg and Hannover were merged in 1946 by the British administration to be the West German State of Lower Saxony. It is now one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Braunschweig and Germany, Brunswick.

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By which geographic names has East Prussia been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

The German name for East Prussia is Ostpreußen. In 1815 Prussia was divided into West and East Prussia. After WW I the northernmost region became part of Lithuania and the southernmost portion of East Prussia became part of Poland. In 1945 East Prussia was divided between Poland and Russia.

The reference place names are Germany, Ostpreußen (East Prussia) and Germany, Preußen, Ostpreußen.

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By which geographic names has Hamburg been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Hamburg was a state in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. In 1937 Greater Hamburg incorporated Wandsbek, Harbur-Wilhelmsburg and Altona. The city suffered tremendous losses during WW II, including more than 50,000 citizens. There are few buildings remaining from before 1945. After WW II it was a part of West Germany. Hamburg is included in this listing because it is one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Hamburg.

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By which geographic names has Hannover been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

Hannover was in West Germany after WW II. In 1946 the states of Schaumburg-Lippe, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Oldenburg and Hannover were merged by the British administration to be Lower Saxony, now one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Preußen, Hannover.

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By which geographic names has Hesse been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Hesse (Hessen) was a part of Thuringia in the early Middle Ages and was an earldom within the Holy Roman Empire until 1567. In 1622 it was divided into Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Marburg, Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Darmstadt. Hesse-Rheinfels was annexed by Hesse-Darmstadt in 1583. Hesse-Marburg was annexed by Hesse-Kassel in 1604. In 1622, Hesse-Darmstadt split into Hesse-Darmstadt and Hesse-Homburg. Thus, in the 17th century, there were three Hessian states. In 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt became the Grand Duchy of Hesse. In 1866 Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Homburg, along with the Duchy of Nassau, were annexed by Prussia to become the Province of Hesse-Nassau. The Grand Duchy of Hesse and Hesse-Nassau were two separate administrative regions during the Weimar Republic. In 1945 they were combined into a single Hesse in West Germany except for some parts near the Rhine which then became part of Rhineland-Palatinate. Hesse is one of the sixteen states of the Federated Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Hessen; Germany, Hessen, Darmstadt; Germany, Braunschweig, Hessen and Germany, Elsaß-Lothringen, Hessen.

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By which geographic names has Hesse-Nassau been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

See Hesse-Nassau in the prior question.

After WW II part of the area was in West Germany and part in East Germany. It is now part of Hesse, one of the sixteen states of the Federated Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Hessen-Nassau and Germany, Preußen, Hessen-Nassau.

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By which geographic names has Hohenzollern been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

There were two Hohenzollern principalities: Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen. They became a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1849 and were included in West Germany after WW II. Today they are in Baden-Württemberg.

The reference place name is Germany, Preußen, Hohenzollern.

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By which geographic name has Lippe been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

The former State of Lippe was originally in the Duchy of Saxony. In 1613 it was divided into two divisions: Lippe (also known as Lippe-Detmold) and Schaumburg-Lippe. It became a principality in 1720, joined the German Empire in 1871 and the Weimar Republic in 1918. Lippe was in West Germany after WW II and in 1947 was included in North Rhineland-Westphalia, one of the sixteen states of the Federated Republic of Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Lippe.

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By which geographic names has Mecklenburg been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

The old Pomerania (Pommern), which was made up of Stettin and the land east of the Oder River, is presently in Poland. Vorpommern (Western Pomerania) was part of Sweden from 1648 until 1720 when it was annexed by Prussia, and again annexed in 1815 by means of the German Confederation after Napoleon's defeat.

Mecklenburg, west of Vorpommern, was a duchy as early as 1348 but was divided into two grand duchies in the 17th centuries: Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. From 1947 to 1952 they were combined with Vorpommern as Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in East Germany. Since 1990 Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania has been one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Mecklenburg and Germany, Mecklenburg, Vorpommern.

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By which geographic names has the present State of North Rhine-Westphalia been known and what are its reference place names?

See Westphalia below.

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By which geographic names has Oldenburg been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Oldenburg was in West Germany after WW II. In 1946 Schaumburg-Lippe, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Oldenburg and Hannover were merged by the British administration and given the name of Lower Saxony. It is one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Oldenburg and Germany, Preußen, Schleswig-Holstein, Oldenburg.

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By which geographic names has Palatinate been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

The German name for Palatinate is Pfalz. Until 1620 the area was divided into Upper Palatinate and Lower or Rhenish Palatinate. It was in West Germany after WW II. The area that was Upper Palatinate is now part of Bavaria (Bayern). The formerly Lower Palatinate is now known as Rheinland Pfalz (Rhineland Palatinate) and is one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Bayern, Pfalz and Germany, Palatinate.

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By which geographic name has Pomerania been known and what are its LDS Library place names?

See Mecklenburg above.

The German name for Pomerania is Pommern. The old Pomerania was made up of Szezecin (the former Stettin) and the land east of the Oder River. Western Pomerania (Vorpommern) was annexed to Prussia in 1815. After WW II it was part of East Germany and Poland. Today it remains in Poland.

The reference place names are Germany, Preußen, Pommern and Germany, Pomerania.

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By which geographic names has Posen been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

Aside from the far western side which remained with Germany, Posen was returned to Poland after WW I. Along with some districts of the former West Prussia, it was part of a new province called Grenzmark, Posen-Westpreußen and included parts of Silesia. In 1938 it was added to the nearby Prussian provinces. After WW II Grenzmark became part of Poland and Germans living there were forced to leave. Posen has also been known as South Prussia and Wielkopolska.

The reference place name is Germany, Preußen, Posen.

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By which geographic names has Rhineland been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

See Palatinate above.

The German spelling for Rhineland is Rheinland. After WW II it was in West Germany and Belgium and was established as Rhineland-Palatinate by merging Rhenish-Palatinate with parts of the Prussian Rhine province and parts of the former Hesse. It is one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Palatinate; Germany, Rhineland; Germany, Preußen, Rheinland; Germany, Rheinland, Pfalz and Germany, Bayern, Pfalz.

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By which geographic names has Saarland been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

The German spellings for Saarland are Zahrland and/or Sahrland. It is also known as Saar Territory and Saar Basin. Before WW I it was part of the German Empire but the treaty of Versailles gave France control of the area. It included portions of the Prussian Rhine province and the Rhine Palatinate. In 1935 the people voted to again become part of Germany. The area was known as Westmark by the Nazis. After WW II Saarland again came under French administration until 1957 when it was returned to Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Saarland.

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By which geographic names has the Kingdom of Saxony been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

When the Congress of Vienna determined that the Province of Saxony (the northern territories, now known as Saxony-Anhalt) was to be joined to Prussia, the remaining area was similar in size and location to the present federal State of Saxony. It became the Kingdom of Saxony in 1831 (Königreich Sachsen). After WW II it was under Soviet occupation and was dissolved in 1952 but again established during reunification in 1990 as one of sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany. It includes a very small part of Silesia around the town of Görlitz.

The reference place names are Germany, Preußen, Sachsen and Germany, Sachsen.

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By which geographic name has the Province of Saxony been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

The Province of Saxony (Provinz Sachsen) was a Prussian province from the time of the Napoleonic wars until 1947. After WW II it was in East Germany and is now part of the State of Saxony-Anhalt, one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Preußen, Rheinland.

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By which geographic names has Schaumburg-Lippe been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

At the time of the Thirty Years War, Schaumburg was divided into Schaumburg and Schaumburg-Lippe. Schaumburg became known as Hesse-Kassel and Schaumburg-Lippe became a democratic republic until it was suppressed by the Nazis. After WW II, in 1946, the British administration united Schaumburg-Lippe, Hannover, Braunschweig and Oldenburg to form a new state of Lower Saxony. In 1977 Schaumburg and Schaumburg-Lippe again were merged. Since unification in 1990 Lower Saxony is one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Schaumburg-Lippe.

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By which geographic names has Schleswig-Holstein been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

In 1863 Christian IX of Denmark annexed Schleswig and Holstein. Shortly thereafter Prussia gained control over Schleswig and Austria overtook Holstein. In 1865 Prussia took control of Holstein, therby forming the State of Schleswig- Holstein. It was in West Germany after WW II. Since 1990 Schleswig-Holstein is one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Preußen, Schleswig-Holstein and Germany, Schleswig-Holstein.

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By which geographic names has Silesia been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

The German name for Silesia is Schlesien. The area was Polish from 900 A.D. until 1526 when it was taken over by Austria. In 1742 Northern Silesia was seized by Prussia. In 1919 that area was divided between Germany and Poland, and Southern Silesia became part of Czechoslovakia.In 1945 Poland gained the entire northern part and in 1993 the part in Czechoslovakia became part of the Czech Republic. A very small area in Silesia, around the town of Görlitz, remained part of Germany after WWII and was combined with Saxony.

The reference place names are Germany, Preußen, Schlesien; Austria, Schlesien and Germany, Silesia.

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By which geographic names has Thuringia been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

In the German Empire, Thuringia (Thüringen) was composed of the following states: Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and the two principalities of Reuß. Following WW I these states were dissolved. In 1920 they were again merged to reestablish Thuringia except for Saxe-Coburg-Gotha which joined Bavaria. The city of Erfurt, although surrounded by Thuringia territory, remained part of Prussia. Thuringia was in East Germany after WW II and was restored in 1990 during Germany's reunification. It is one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place name is Germany, Preußen, Sachsen, Mühlhausen, Thüringen.

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By which geographic names has Waldeck been known and what is its LDS Library reference place name?

Waldeck was a former principality. Waldeck-Pyrmont became a republic in 1918, joined Prussia in 1922 and became part of the Province of Hannover. In 1929 it became part of the Hesse-Nassau province of Prussia. After WW II it was in West Germany and then became part of Hesse.

The reference place name is Germany, Waldeck.

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By which geographic names has West Prussia been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

In the first "Partition of Poland" in 1772, all of Royal Prussia was annexed by Prussia and named West Prussia. After WW I much of West Prussia reverted to Poland except for two western districts that formed the new Province of Grenzmark Posen-West Preußen and the area east of the Vistula River that joined East Prussia. After WW II all of West Prussia reverted to Poland and all German residents were replaced by Polish refugees from other states.

The reference place names are Germany, West Prussia and Germany, Preußen, Westpreußen.

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By which geographic names has Westphalia been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Westphalia was part of the Duchy of Saxony until the year 1180 when it became its own duchy. (Another Westphalia, the Kingdom of Westphalia, was founded by Napoleon as a French vassal state and existed from 1807 to 1813. It was mainly composed of Hessian and Eastphalian regions and a small part of the original Westphalia.) The Duchy of Westphalia became a province of Prussia but the northern parts were ceded to the states of Hannover and Oldenburg. In 1946 the state of North Rhine-Westphalia was administered by the British military as part of West Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia today consists of most of the former Province of Prussia, the northern half of the former Prussian Rhine province and the former State of Lippe. A small southwest corner of the original Westphalia is now part of Lower Saxony. North Rhine-Westphalia is one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Westphalia and Germany, Preußen, Westfalen.

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By which geographic names has Württemberg been known and what are its LDS Library reference place names?

Württemberg was a kingdom and later became part of Germany. After WW II allied forces in Germany specified three states: Württemberg-Baden (administered by the United States); Württemberg-Hohenzollern (administered by France) and Baden (also administered by France). These three states were later combined to form Baden-Württemberg, one of the sixteen states in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The reference place names are Germany, Baden-Württemberg and Germany, Württemberg.

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Germany

Is there a Bessarabian Museum in Germany?

Yes.
Heimatmuseum der Deutschen Aus Bessarabien
Florianstraße 17
D-70188
Stuttgart

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Where in Germany did our people come from?

In general terms, there are many tables in the front of the Stumpp book beginning on page 48. This information reflects the villages by Kreis (district) with the number of families in each village for the names of Württemberg, Baden, Pfalz, Elsaß, Hessen, Rheinhessen, Bayern and Danzig (West Prussia). This is not a perfect nor complete set of listings.

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Where will I find information pertaining to Elsaß as it relates to our German-Russian ancestors?

  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 23.

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Glueckstal Colonies, Odessa

Where will I locate history pertaining to the Glueckstal colonies?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.
  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe-The Odyssey of a Pioneering People" by Joseph S. Height.
    These and other valuable books are referenced throughout "An Elementary Tutorial of the German Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line". Link text

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Grossliebental District, Odessa

Where will I locate history of the Grossliebental District villages?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.
  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height.
  • See "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height.

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Government

Where will I find information pertaining to administration of the villages as it relates to our ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height.

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Hungary

What is the meaning of the term "Ungarn"?

Ungarn is the German word for Hungary.

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Where will I find information pertaining to Hungary as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

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Idaho

Where in Idaho did the Black Sea German-Russian people settle?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 120.
    A little more than 50% of the German-Russian families settling in Idaho were from the Black Sea. Most settled in the counties of Power, Minidoka, Bingham, Madison, Cassia, Twin Falls, Kootenai, Bonneville and Benewah.

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Jekaterinoslaw

Where were the Jekaterinoslaw villages?

  • See the Stumpp book, pages 92 and 101.
  • See "An Elementary Tutorial of the German Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line". Link text

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Kherson

  • See Odessa

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Krim

  • See Crimea

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Kutschurgan Villages

What were the Kutschurgan villages?

  • See "An Elementary Tutorial of the German-Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line", year of 1810. Link text
  • See "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height.
  • See the Stumpp book, pages 89, 627-658.

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Language

Where will I find information pertaining to common German words as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 429.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 399.

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Where will I find information pertaining to common Russian words as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 428.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 400.

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Maps

Where will I find maps that are of interest to the Black Sea German-Russian researcher?

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Medical History

Can DNA play a role in family research?

At least one of our medical doctors has pointed to such a role in the future for our German-Russian research. It is not too early to start gathering the questions that will obviously need to be asked and answered in regards to our DNA research. Your local library and/or the Internet will provide answers to questions about DNA, its uses and methodology.

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Is Alzheimer's Disease common to German-Russian people?

This history is restricted to a few Volga families and is well researched and documented on the Odessa Digital Library and in articles in AHSGR journals. Read this file.

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Have we gathered any medical or medicinal data for our Black Sea German ancestors?

Yes. Read this file.

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Are there any sources to determine what epidemics occurred in the Black Sea villages?

Some work has been done, but nothing to the degree that should be done. The St. Petersburg annual death reports could furnish several years of data to share on the GRHS Web pages. "Teplitz" by Weiss is an example of a village history book that gives an account of several epidemics and the number of resultant deaths.

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Where in Montana did the Black Sea German-Russian people settle?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 120.
    Only about 30% of the German-Russian families settling in Montana were from the Black Sea area. Most settled in the counties of Yellowstone, Prairie, Hill, Fallon, Stillwater, Roosevelt, Dawson, Garfield, Blaine, Big Horn and McCone.

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North Dakota

Where in North Dakota did the Black Sea German-Russian people settle?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 114.
    Nearly 98% of the German-Russian families settling in North Dakota were from the Black Sea area. About 2/3 of the Black Sea settlers coming to the USA were settled in North Dakota by 1920. The 30 counties receiving these people were scattered across the state.

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Nebraska

Where in Nebraska did the Black Sea German-Russian people settle?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 117.
    Only about 10% of the German-Russian families settling in Nebraska were from the Black Sea area. Most settled in the counties of Lancaster, Scottsbluff, Adams, Clay, Red Willow, York, Hitchcock, Hall, Boyd, Hamilton, Kimball, Platte, Saline and Box Butte.

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Odessa/Kherson

Where will I find family information that has been published about the village of Hoffnungstal in Odessa?

  • See "Hoffnungstal und Seine Schwaben" by George Leibbrandt.
  • See censuses for sale by GRHS.

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Oregon

Where in Oregon did the Black Sea German-Russian people settle?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 123.
    Only about 30% of the German Russian families settling in Oregon were from the Black Sea area. Most settled in the counties of Clackamas, Marion, Polk, Umatilla and Yamhill.

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Religion

Where will I find information pertaining to the subject of Chiliasm as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 27.

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Where will I find information pertaining to Church as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 245.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 219.

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Where will I find information regarding Harmonies as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 28.

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Where will I find information pertaining to Pietists as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 25.

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Where will I find information pertaining to Separatists as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • See "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 26.

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Repression/Persecution

Where will I find information pertaining to Bolshevism as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 368.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 322.

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Where will I find information pertaining to the Communist Era as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 376.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 333.

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What do we know of the liquidation of our Black Sea German-Russians before and during World War II?

  • In "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger we find chapter XVI, page 299 to be a very critical chapter in our Black Sea history.

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Where will I find information pertaining to the Exodus as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 403.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 370.
  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger, chapter 16, page 299.

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Schools

Where may I find information pertaining to schools as it relates to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 253.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 209.

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South Caucasus

Where will I find information pertaining to the Caucasus?

  • See "from Catherine to Khrushchev" by Adam Giesinger.

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South Dakota

Where in South Dakota did the Black Sea German-Russian people settle?

  • See "Russian-German settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 116.
    Nearly 90% of the German Russian families settling in South Dakota were from the Black Sea. By 1920, South Dakota was only second to North Dakota in the number of German-Russian settlers. The 31 counties receiving these people were scattered across the state.

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St. Petersburg Reports

How may I gain an understanding of the annual St. Petersburg parish reports of the Evangelical Lutheran and Reformed villages?

  • This subject is well covered on the BDO FAQ pages. Read this file.

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Taurien

How do I sort out what was "Crimea" and what was "Taurien"?

Check the information on pages 95 through 98 of the Stumpp book.
Maps created over the years will tend to reflect differing data.

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United States

Where will I find information about the German newspapers that our ancestors read in this country?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, chapter 7.

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Where was the first German-Russian settlement in the United States?

    Kelley's Island on Lake Erie, near Sandusky, Ohio
  • See "An Elementary Tutorial of the German Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line", year of 1849. Link text

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When were the first settlements in the United States?

    The year is not exact but it is thought to be 1847-1848.
  • See "An Elementary Tutorial of the German Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line", year of 1849. Link text

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Where in the United States did the Black Sea German- Russians settle?

  • The most refined and defining data can be found in "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, beginning on page 10.

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Which communities in North Dakota and South Dakota had the majority of the Black Sea settlers?

  • See "Russian German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet.

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Villages

Where will I find information pertaining to the early Black Sea villages?

  • SeeAn Elementary Tutorial of the German Russian History - an Enhanced (Black Sea German) Time Line, year of 1848 for an explanation of the 1848 village histories. Link text
  • For the Lutheran villages of Odessa, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Joseph S. Height, page 148.

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Where will I find information about the "dorf" (village) as it pertains to our German ancestors in South Russia?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 234.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height, page 119.

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Where will I find chronicles of the Black Sea villages?

  • For the Lutheran villages, see "Homesteaders on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height.
  • For the Catholic villages, see "Paradise on the Steppe" by Jacob S. Height.

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Washington State

Where in Washington State did the Black Sea German- Russian people settle?

  • See "Russian-German Settlements in the United States" by Richard Sallet, pages 112 and 123.
    Only about 50% of the German-Russian families settling in Washington State were from the Black Sea. Most settled in the counties of Adams, Whitman, Walla Walla, Spokane, Yakima, Lincoln, Grant, Douglas and Chelan.

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White Russia

What is meant by White Russia?

    Today the area is known as the Republic of Byelorussia. Latvia and Lithuania adjoin it to the northwest, Russia to the east, Ukraine to the south and Poland to the west. It became independent from the Soviet Union in 1991.

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